Enugu Water Corporation - Project Scheme


The development of water supply infrastructure in Enugu metropolis started before the political Independence of Nigeria in 1960 when the city was the Regional Headquarters of the former Eastern Region of Nigeria.
From 1967 onward, many States have been created out of the region; while Enugu has retained the role of administrative headquarter for the former East Central State.

The Corporation presently operates three (3) water production plants for Enugu, and one (1) scheme at Nsukka, with about 450 kilometers of water transmission and distribution pipelines.
These schemes and their installed capacities, as well as brief remarks on their background are as follows:

Iva Headworks    -       
4,500m3/day (design/installed capacity)
Ajalli Owa    -        
Oji Augmentation    -       
Nsukka    -       

-        150,500m3/day


The first water scheme is the Iva, which was based on a two spring intakes (grotto) was constructed in 1924 with a daily production capacity of 2,500m3. The Iva scheme was subsequently upgraded in 1952, 1956, and 1962 with the addition of stream intakes, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfections units. The additions increased the daily output to 4,500m3. Owing to the dilapidation of infrastructure, the scheme now roduces only about 1,800 to 2,000m3, utilizing only the original spring intakes, but without filtration and disinfections. It supplies water to the Government Reserved Area (GRA), and the earliest built-up settlements of Enugu. The scheme is reliable since it functions mainly by gravity, and is usually the only source of drinking water when the Ajalli and Oji Water Schemes are not functional as a consequence of power outages or other incidental problems.
This scheme was completed and commissioned in December 1985, with an installed raw water pumping capacity of approximately 3,480m3/hr. (7 pumps of 580m3/hr, one standby) and a treated pump capacity of 3,210m3/hr (4 pumps of 1,070m3/hr, one standby). The maximum pumping capacity of the Ajalli water works is 77,000m3/day, based on 24 hours of pumping. The Ajalli scheme was rehabilitated in 1998 to about 56,000m3/day production under the National Water Rehabilitation Project. Reported average production in 2002 was 21,958m3/day. The scheme was rehabilited under the 1st National Urban water Sector Reform Project (2006-2013) to about 60% of its installed capacity.
This is a Borehole scheme that was commissioned in 1982 during the construction of the Ajalli Water Works. It was initiated as an emergency program to augment the water production from Iva and Ekulu Water Works, until the completion of the Ajalli Scheme. The total design capacity was 28,000m3/day. Some years ago, the State Government awarded a contract to RCC for the rehabilitation of the Crash Program facilities. The contract covered the re-development of the 12 existing boreholes, and the drilling of 8 new boreholes, refurbishing of electrical and mechanical facilities, and construction of DN300 steel pipeline to Okwojo Reservoir. Although substantial progress was reported, the contract is still not completed or handed over, owing to some contractual problems.
The scheme was the second water supply scheme for Enugu, and together with Iva, met the needs of the metropolis, until the completion of Ajalli in 1985. The scheme was abandoned following the completion of Ajalli owing to high operation and maintenance costs in relation to the low production of 16,000m3/day.
The Federal Government of Nigeria, under the National Water Supply and Sanitation Program, undertook the construction of a Borehole Water Supply Project, based on grand water abstraction, construction of treatment facilities, booster stations, and DN 600 steel pipeline over a distance of 21.5km from Oji into the Nsude twin tanks located along the Ajalli transmission main. The design capacity of the scheme is 50,000m3/day
  • Nsukka Urban Water Scheme was commissioned about 40 years ago and her source of water supply has been from Boreholes.
  • The Boreholes are from the Borehole Field located near the University of Nigeria, Nsukka Main Gate.
  • The depths of the Boreholes range from 200-220m and their yields range from 70-100m3/hr.
  • The water from the boreholes are delivered to the 675m3 Reservoir located within the Borehole Field via the Sprinkler Aeration System.
  • The network of pipes which are mainly A.C Pipes were equally laid about 40 years ago with minor replacements and pipeline extensions over the past 10 years.
  • Some feasibility studies for the Greater Nsukka Water Scheme which was to source its water from the Adada River was made.
  • This was started in 1976 by the then military Government. Tahal Consultants was employed to design urban water supply schemes for Enugu, Abakaliki, Nsukka, Onitsha in the old Anambra State.
  • Initial transmission pipeline construction works was started but was later abandoned till date.
  • However, this project did not progress longer as it was abandoned due to some problems associated with the provision of funds for the construction works.
  • Interestingly, the State Government is presently committed to the construction of Transmission Pipelines from the proposed Water Treatment Plant at Adada to Nsukka Town. Also in the State Government’s top priority is the construction of Booster Stations, Reservoirs and Distribution Pipelines.
  • A consultant has been engaged to carryout detailed Engineering Designs for the aforementioned infrastructures

    There are a total of seven (7) Boreholes at the Boreholes Field near the U.N.N. Gate. These are:

    1)   Borehole No. 7
    2)   Borehole No. 9
    3)   Borehole No. 10
    4)   Borehole No. 11
    5)   Borehole No. 12
    6)   Borehole No. 13
    7)   Borehole No. 14

  • Of these Boreholes, three of them were drilled under the 1st National Urban Water Sector Reform Project ( 1st NUWSRP)- World Bank Assisted at the Borehole Field.
  • One is located near Pump House 2 while the others are near Pump House 1.An additional Borehole was drilled at Ede Oballa Booster Station under the 1st National Urban Water Sector Reform Project.
  • Borehole No. 10 had its pump dropped, while Borehole No.12 is believed to have casing and alignment problems.
  • Boreholes Nos. 7, 11, 13 and 14 are functional. Borehole No. 13 has starter panel problem. Borehole No. 9 as was just confirmed
  • Borehole at Ede-Oballa Booster Station is functional.

  • The Nsukka Urban Water Scheme has a concrete reservoir of about 675m3 capacity located within the Boreholes field.
  • Water from the Boreholes are delivered to the reservoir through the sprinkler aeration system.
  • This reservoir serves most parts of NsukkaUrban through boosting to high areas and by gravity to low areas like Onuiyi, Beach and Ibeagwa Road and Obollo Afor axis.
  • There is also another Concrete Reservoir at Ugwunkwo (225m3 capacity) that supplies the Enugu Road axis of Nsukka Urban through gravity reticulation

  • The Distribution Network in Nsukka Urban comprises mainly of A.C Pipes laid over 40 years ago. The sizes range from 75 – 250mm diameters and covers a distance of about 45 km.
  • This represents less than 30% coverage of Nsukka Urban due to continued growth of the town over the years.
  • Only a limited replacement of the A.C Pipes with Ductile Iron (D.I) Pipes and uPVC Pipes and some minor extensions have been done in the past 10 years.
  • Under the 1st National Urban Water Sector Reform Project, sections of the old pipelines have been replaced with uPVC pipes and a dedicated 100mm D.I Pipeline laid from Ede-Oballa Booster Station to Ugwunkwo Reservoir.

  • There are three (3) Pump Houses at the Borehole Field near the UNN Gate and aBooster Station – Ede Oballa Booster Station along Enugu Road, Nsukka. The Pump Houses and the Booster Station are as follows:
  • Pump House One (1):
  • This houses 2 nos. Booster Pumps, 1 duty and 1 standby. The expected Discharge Capacity is 114m3/hr each. A 500KVA Transformer is provided and dedicated and a 350KVA Generator provided under the 1st National Urban Water Sector Reform Project is available as a standby power source.

    S/N Name of Scheme & Design Capacity Location Served Type of Treatment Process Current Production Capacity
    1 Iva Water Supply (4,500m3/day) Enugu Metropolis Sedimentation/HTH addition at the terminal reservoir (one million gallons at the foot of the MilikenHills) About 1,800 to 2,000m3/day on the average
    2 Ajalli Water Supply Scheme (77,000m3/day) Enugu Metropolis & Environs River Source abstraction with the following treatment process, flash mixer (coagulation) sedimentation,Rapid Sand Filtration, Chlorination About 8,000 to 16,000m3/day on the average
    3 Oji River Water Supply Scheme (50,000m3/day) Enugu Metropolis & Environs Abstractions from the confined Ajalli Formation Aquifer aquifer at Oji River of combinations of eight Boreholes, pumping through two repeater booster stations at Obunofia and Umudim About 5,000 to 12,000m3/day on the average
    4 Nsukka Water Supply Scheme (19,152m3/day) Nsukka Urban & Environs Abstraction from the borehole field at the U.N.N. Gate of six boreholes About 400 to 600m3/day on the average
    5 9th Mile Water Scheme (Old Road) 9th Mile Corner & Environs Abstraction from the borehole field at the 9th Mile Old Road. Not functional Nil as none of the borehole is functional and land encroachment by the Community
    6 Udi Water Scheme Udi Town & U.N.T.H. Abstraction from the Spring Source at Nvene. Scheme vandalized About 400 to 450m3/day on the average
    7 Agbani Water Scheme Agbani Town & Environs Abstraction from the boreholes at Agbani from the Agbani Sandstone formation Nil as non of the boreholes is functional

    Note(s) on Table 1

  • In general, the infrastructure can be described as being in extremely poor condition with much of it being non-functional or close to non-functional.

  • Water is pumped from treatment works to seven storage reservoirs located near or in the town as shown in the table below
    Table 2: Storage Reservoirs Serving Enugu Urban

    S/N Name Location Capacity(m3) Remarks
    1 Nsude Twin Nsude 5,000 Constructed 1985
    2 Okwojo High Pressure Okwojo Ngwo 3,000 Constructed 1985
    3 Iva Terminal Milikin Hill 4,500 Water from Iva.Constructed 1924
    4 Ekulu Terminal Milikin Hill 20,000 From the abandoned Ekulu Works.Constructed 1956
    5 Terminal Milikin Hill 20,000 Constructed 1985
    6 North East Emene 12,500 Constructed 1985
    7 South East Idaw River 12,500 Constructed 1985

    Note(s) on Table 2

  • All of the above reservoirs from Nsude to MilikinHill and to the North East receive water by gravity.
  • Other reservoirs constructed at the booster stations within the town facilitate distribution by pumping to the consumers.
  • Infrastructure also exists to serve other areas classified as urban including Nsukka, 9th Mile, Udi and Agbani.


    245,783.00 234,738.00 142,887.00 244,938.00 162,918.00 190,297.00 158,759.00 215,083.00 139,185.00 139,860.00 302,474.00 213,953.00 2,145,092.00
    2 AJALLI WATER SCHEME 123,784.49 137,420.33 203,150.62 219,889.60 186,526.63 258,532.48 99,180.58 165,911.09 50,758.78 6,241.00 47,140.00 83,639.45 1,458,390.56
    3 IVA HEADWORKS 31,119.37 27,328.50 27,158.09 35,204.98 33,817.78 32,073.77 24,310.00 25,294.94 28,126.36 29,819.41 28,242.25 24,674.30 316,050.38
    4 9TH MILE (OLDROAD) Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na NA
    5 9TH MILE(CRASH PROG.) Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na NA
    6 NSUKKA ZONE (SOUTH) 141,290.00 153,980.00 164,500.00 124,145.00 121,783.00 142,875.00 142,875.00 104,370.00 139,440.00 144,893.00 160,245.00 156,709.00 1,555,815.00
    7 UDI ZONE 2,950.00 600.00 Nil 300.00 450.00 300.00 3,650.00 3,750.00 1,700.00 4,200.00 4,000.00 3,600.00 22,550.00
    8 NSUKKA ZONE(NORTH) Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na NA
    9 AGBANI ZONE Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na Na NA
      TOTAL/MON TH 544,926.86 554,066.83 537,695.71 624,477.58 505,495.41 624,078.25 428,774.58 514,409.03 359,210.14 325,013.41 542,101.25 482,575.75 6,042,824.80
        AVERAGE/MONTH   503,568.73



    Note(s) on Table 3

    1. NA = Not available (grounded)

    2. Total Water Production for 2020

      (January – December, 2020) =6,042,823.80m3

    3. Average Monthly Production = 503,568.73m3

    4. Capacity Utilization = 11%

    Note(s) on Table 5

    1. NA = Not available (grounded)

    2. Total Production for 2021

      (January – May, 2021) = 1,844,445M3

    3. Average Monthly Production = 368,888.90M3

    4. Capacity Utilization = 7%

    JANUARY 9,989,891.00
    FEBRUARY 10,591,327.00
    MARCH 10,130,963.75
    APRIL 1,915,400.00
    MAY 6,412,020.00
    JUNE 11,038,620.76
    JULY 9,811,750.51
    AUGUST 10,335,090.00
    SEPTEMBER 8,834,475.00
    OCTOBER 7,531,443.75
    NOVEMBER 8,617,116.50
    DECEMBER 8,709,986.50
    TOTAL 103,918,084.77
    AVERAGE 8,659,84023.40

    JANUARY 8,679,309.50
    FEBRUARY 10,377,103.50
    MARCH 7,754,883.39
    APRIL 5,994,526.00
    MAY 5,440,843.50
    TOTAL 38,246,665.89
    AVERAGE/Month 7,649,333.18

    Note(s) on Table 6 & 7

    1.Water Production dropped from monthly average of 503,568.73M3 in 2020 to 368,888.90 so far in 2021.

    2.The drop in Water Production impacted negatively on the revenue from 8,659,840.40 in 2020 to 7,649,333.18 so far in 2021.

    3.The drops in Water Production and Revenue in the reporting period are due to critical challenges which are being handled.

    JANUARY 30
    MARCH 38
    APRIL 17
    MAY 29
    JUNE 40
    JULY 20
    AUGUST 25
    OCTOBER 26
    TOTAL 361
    AVERAGE/Month 30

    JANUARY 32
    MARCH 23
    APRIL 19
    MAY 24
    TOTAL 124
    AVERAGE/Month 25

    Note(s) on Table 8 & 9

  • The occurrence of bursts and leakages in the Corporation’s network reticulations improved from a monthly average of 30 to 25 so far in 2021

  • Power Problems
  • Non-supply/fluctuations of power at the schemes
  • Frequent Disconnections by the EEDC
  • Lack of protection of the Power Transformers
  • Frequent Breakdown of our equipment/water facilities
  • Most of our Equipments/Water Facilities are old and experience frequent breakdowns requiring replacements
  • Most of our big Customers do not pay
  • The Army
  • The Police
  • The Fire Service
  • And other Government Ministries/Establishments
  • Security Issues at the Production Centers
  • There is the need to intensify Police Security at Iva Headworks
  • Vandalization of our Water Supply Facilities by unknown persons at Transmission Pipelines, Crash Programme, Electrical Installations, etc2
  • Employment
  • Due to retirements and deaths, there is a pressing need to recruit Young Engineers and other personnel
  • Training
  • There is the need to train our staff to keep them at par with modern technologies
  • Erosion
  • Most of our major transmission Pipelines of both Ajalli and Oji River Water Schemes are being threatened by erosion.
  • Nsukka
  • There is an urgent need to construct 2500m3 Ground Level Gravity Distribution Reservoir at around Adada House, GRA, Nsukka to enable water to be distributed by gravity and safeguard the life of the Submersible and Booster Pumps.
  • There is a need for the drilling of more boreholes away from the University Road Borehole Field at Adada House, TTC Road, Ugwu Nkwo, etc
  • There is also a need to construct Reservoirs at the New Borehole Areas.
  • Intermittent Water Supply (2-3 times weekly) of very short duration (5-6 hrs) unable to build up at the terminal reservoir for sustained supply to the service areas (gravitational)
  • Quality installation of connections is not assured (guaranteed) since the process is sponsored by the customer.
  • Low collection ratio (efficiency) due to the very low and unstable service delivery status.
  • Insufficient release of funds.
  • Erosion menace (threat) at the production, transmission and distribution lines.

  • The mandate and vision of ENSWC are clear but with manifold challenges in her service delivery efforts.
  • His Excellency, the Chief Executive of Enugu State and his Governance Team had earlier visited the Installations/Schemes of the Corporation to fully appreciate the actual state of affairs in the Corporation.
  • His Excellency has been relentless in his efforts to strengthen the Corporation towards meeting the water needs of the State. He is very committed to eliminating the impediments that have over the years hindered the smooth delivery of water to the state’s citizens
  • The AFD sponsored Pre-Feasibility Study of the corporation has brought to light the hitherto impediments in her service delivery efforts.
  • The Pre-feasibility study did not only unfold the above stated inherent impediments/hindrances in the corporation but also provided a leeway for the identification of a strategic course of actions and the accompanying investment projects/programmes needed to turn the corporation around.
  • We are hopeful also that the AFD intervention will significantly fund the proposed investments.
  • It is also worthy of note that the present regime/leadership in the Corporation is working very hard to seriously improve the service levels of the Corporation. The results are already showing up.